Abdominal - The part of the body between the ribs and the pelvic area.
Achrocyanosis - A bluish appearance seen in the first few hours of life on the newborn’s hands and feet.
Acute - Short course, intense.
Adult Onset Diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) - A type of diabetes mellitus in which patients are not dependent on injections of insulin. The disease usually begins after 40 years of age, but can occur at any age. About 60% to 90% of patients are overweight. In these patients, the condition is often improved by weight loss.There are probably several causes for the development of diabetes mellitus. One is that the patient is born with the likelihood of getting it.
After Birth Pains - Occurring after delivery, these pains are caused by contractions of the uterus and feel like early labor pains.
Amniocentesis - A needle is inserted through the mother’s abdomen into the uterus; the analysis of the fluid obtained can give important clues to the health status.
Amniotic Fluid - The fluid that surrounds the fetus.
Anemia - A lower than normal amount of red blood cells at the blood count analysis. Symptoms include pallor of the skin, shortness of breath, heart palpitations and fatigue.
Apgar Score - A score given to the newborn at one minute and five minutes of age and based on the following criteria: color, heart rate, muscle tone, respiration and reflexes.
Benign - Not progressive, better known as not malignant or not aggressive.
Biopsy - A small piece of tissue is removed from the diseased area, and is then processed by a pathologist.
Blood - Considered a circulating tissue. Composed of a fluid portion (plasma) and suspended formed elements (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). Arterial blood transports oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. Venous blood transports carbon dioxide and metabolic products for excretion.
Blood Pressure - The force of circulating blood on the walls of the arteries. This measurement is divided into systolic (pressure during contraction of the heart) and diastolic (pressure during relaxation phase). Blood pressure varies with age and sex of the individual. A rule of thumb for normal systolic pressure is 100 + age of individual. In children 2 x (age) + 80 = systolic. The diastolic pressure should be roughly 2/3 the systolic pressure.
Braxton Hicks Contractions (False Contractions) - Irregular uterine contractions that decrease in frequency and have no progression of labor.
Breech Delivery - Delivery of a baby buttocks first.
Breast Cancer - The most common form of cancer in women. See Encyclopedia
Capillaries - The smallest vessels, which contain oxygenated blood. The capillaries allow red blood cells to travel in single file and are responsible for delivering oxygen to the tissues at cellular level.
Catheter - A tubular, flexible, surgical instrument for withdrawing fluids from, or introducing fluids into, a cavity of the body.
CBC - Complete blood count.
Cesarian Section - The surgical delivery of the baby through an abdominable incision.
Cervix - Band of muscle and connective tissue which form the lower end of the uterus; softens during the latter stages of pregnancy and dilates during labor to about four inches.
Chloasma (Pregnancy Mask) - Darkening of the skin and face due to hormonal changes during pregnancy.
Coagulation - The clotting of blood.
Colostrum - Thick, yellowish fluid that may be expressed from the breasts during pregnancy.
Contraceptive Choices - Options to help protect you and your sexual partner from infection and pregnancy.
Cryosurgery - Procedure in which abnormal body tissues are destroyed by exposure to extremely cold temperatures. See Encyclopedia
Cyst - A growth (tumor) within the ovary that is filled with fluid. See Encyclopedia
Cystitis - Infection of the bladder (Lower UTI). See Encyclopedia
Deep Venous Thrombosis - A blood clot that forms in a vein resulting in obstruction of venous flow. Most common clinically in the lower extremities. See Encyclopedia
Diabetes - A chronic disease due to an inadequate production or use of insulin.
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding - Excessive bleeding or that is unrelated to your normal menstrual cycle. See Encyclopedia
Dysmenorrhoea - Pain associated with menstruation. See Encyclopedia
Diuretics - Medications used to reduce high blood pressure and/or to reduce the fluid build up caused by congestive heart disease, hepatic or renal conditions. The mechanism of action associates some electrolytes (salts) losses, so their use for weight loss purpose can be hazardous for your general health.
Ectopic Pregnancy - Abnormal (ectopic) placement of the developing fetus. See Encyclopedia
Edema - An abnormal amount of fluid in the body tissue that results in swelling or puffiness, especially in the hands, feet, and around the eyes.
Endometrium - The membrane lining the uterus (womb) which is shed during menstruation.
Endometriosis - When the tissue in the endometrium grows outside of the uterus (womb). See Encyclopedia
Endometritis - Bacterial infection to the lining (endometrium) of the uterus (womb). See Encyclopedia
Epidural - A pain relief technique during childbirth in which an anesthetic is injected via a hollow needle and tube inserted into the epidural space of the spine; numbs the nerves to the pelvis and lower abdomen, reducing the pain of uterine contractions.
Episiotomy - An incision to the perineum, the area between the vagina and the anus, to enlarge the vaginal opening for childbirth.
Estrogen - Primary female sexual hormone that promotes the development of women’s secondary sex characteristics (mental and physical).
Estrogen Replacement Therapy - Supplements (hormones) which help relieve symptoms of menopause.
Fibrocystic Breast Disease - Benign condition in which there is an abundance of small cysts in the breasts. See Encyclopedia
Fundus - The upper portion of the uterus.
Gallbladder - Digestive organ which stores the bile (produced by the liver), used in the digestion of fats in the small bowel.
General Anesthesia - A form of anesthesia that results in putting the patient to sleep.
Genital Herpes - A sexually transmitted disease caused by a virus. It results in an episodic painful vesicular skin eruption on the genitalia.
Gonorrhea - A sexually transmitted disease that affects the lining of the genital tract.
Hemorrhage - To bleed.
Hemorrhoids - Veins in the anus or rectum swell into balloons; more common during pregnancy because of increased pressure on veins.
Herpes - A sexually transmitted virus that affects the genitals.
Hysteroscopy - Surgical procedure that involves looking into the cavity of the uterus (womb) with a small “scope.” See Encyclopedia
Hyperglycemia - Occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin that it has to move sugar from the body into the blood cells.
Hyperthyroidism - Abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland, most commonly the increased secretion of thyroid hormone. This is followed by an hyperactive general metabolism, with weight loss, rapid, irregular heart rate, bulging eyes, heat intolerance and anxiety (feeling tense, unable to sleep).
Hypoglycemia - Occurs when insulin, food and exercise are out of balance, causing the blood sugar to fall below normal.
Idiopathic - Cause unknown.
Incontinence - Involuntary leakage of urine.
Insomnia - Inability to sleep.
Jaundice - A yellowing of the skin and/or whites of the eyes, indicating an excess of bilirubin.
Kegel Exercise - An exercise that is known to improve the pelvic floor muscles. This exercise is used in preventing urinary incontinence.
Kidneys - Organs situated in the upper posterior of the abdominal cavity, on either side of the vertebral column. Their function is to filter the blood and eliminate waste products in the form of urine.
Kyphosis - Posterior curvature of the spine. May be related to incorrect position during work or at school, but frequently is of genetic source (parent to child transmission).
Labor - Process of uterine contractions and cervical dilation which leads to delivery of a baby.
Lanugo - Fine hair which grows all over the baby’s body during the second trimester.
Laparoscopy - Procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible, fibreoptic scope into a small incision made in the abdomen. See Encyclopedia
Laparotomy - Incision in the abdominal wall.
Mastitis - Bacterial infection within the breast tissue. See Encyclopedia
Menopause - Absence of the menstrual cycle parallel with aging. See Encyclopedia
Menarche - First menstruation.
Metabolism - The rate at which your body burns calories.
Milia - White spots on baby’s face, usually around the nose and cheek area.
Miscarriage - Passage of a nonliving embryo during early stage of pregnancy.
Nephrolitiasis - The presence of calculi (stones) in the kidney or the collecting system
Nicotine - One of the active and potentially poisonous ingredients in tobacco. It directly stimulates the nervous system.
Nodes - A protuberance or swelling. Lymph nodes are normal parts of the lymphatic circulatory system.
Nulliparous - Referring to a female who has never given birth.
Ob-Gyn - Physician specialist, expert in the delivery of obstetrical (pregnancy related) care and treatment of gynecological (female genital system related) disease.
Obesity - Overweight or excessive fat. Usually 20% or more over standard weight charts.
Oophorectomy - Surgical excision of all or part of an ovary.
Osteoporosis - A condition in which the bones become thin and weaken.
Ovary - Small oval organs situated inside the pelvis, on either side of the womb. These are the structures that develop and release the ova (eggs) during the ovulation.
PAP Smear - Exam which tests for abnormalities in uterine cervical cells (Papanicolau smear or test). See Encyclopedia
Paracenthesis - Diagnostic procedure that involves the introduction of a special needle into the abdominal cavity to aspirate fluid for analysis.
Pelvic Inflamatory Disease - An infection of the female reproductive organs caused by bacteria. See Encyclopedia
Pelvis - Basin-shaped cavity bordered by the pelvic girdle and sacrum, containing and protecting the urinary bladder, lower bowel, internal genital organs.
Pitocin - A synthetic oxytocin used to enhance labor.
Premenstrual Syndrome - Wide range of symptoms, including breast tenderness, bloating, irritability, and fatigue, that can affect women at particular points in their menstrual cycle. See Encyclopedia
Prognosis - The probable outcome of a disease.
Prolapse - A falling or dropping down.
Pudendal Block - Injection of local anesthetic into the vaginal wall. It reduces stretching pain but not that of labor. It may also be used to repair an episiotomy.
Rectum - The end of the large intestine that extends from the sigmoid colon to the anal canal.
Regurgitation - A backward flowing of solids or fluids.
Renal - Relating to the kidney
Renal Calculi - Solid concretions formed within the collecting system of the kidneys. Portions of calculi may break off and cause pain and urinary difficulties during the passage through the urinary tract.
Resection - A term used to describe the removal of a tissue.
RH Factor - A marker found on the red blood cells.
RhoGAM - An injectable medication given to mothers of Rh-negative blood type.
Ruptured Membranes - Term used to define the rupture of the amniotic sac, releasing the amniotic fluid, and marking the start of the labor.
Salpingitis - Inflammation of the fallopian tubes (which connect the ovaries to the womb, receiving the ova during ovulation) secondary to bacterial infection.
Sclerosing of Varicose Veins - A procedure which involves the injection of a sclerosing agent (that causes scarring) into varicose veins in the extremities.
Sex Hormones - Steroid hormones that determine the sexual characteristics (e.g. testosterone and estrogen).
Spinal Anesthesia - Form of regional anesthesia involving the injection of anesthetic into the epidural space (inside the spinal canal), at well determined locations, to produce anaesthesia in the body region supplied by nerves that arise below the anatomic region af the block.
Threatened Abortion - Clinical diagnosis during first trimester of pregnancy, in women who present with vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain. Immediate testing and physical examination by a physician are needed.
Thrombosis - The formation, development or presence of a thrombus.
Thrombus - An aggregation of blood elements, primarily platelets and fibrin with entrapment of red blood cells, frequently causing vascular obstruction at the point of its formation.
Thrombophlebitis - Inflammation of the veins with secondary clotting of a segment of vein - usually in the superficial veins of the lower extremities.
Tinnitus - Ringing or buzzing sound in the years. May be related to hyper- or hypotension or be a secondary effect of some medications.
Toxoplasmosis - A disease of mammals and birds transmitted to humans by under-cooked meat, contaminated soil and direct contact.
Tranquilizers - Medications with tranquilizing effects (can also promote sleep). Overdosage can lead to dangerously slowed breathing and possibly death.
Ultrasound - A technique using high frequency sound waves to produce images of internal anatomy for diagnostic purposes.
Umbilical - Referring to the umbilicus (belly button).
Ureter - Tube passing from each kidney to the bladder for the conveyance of urine.
Urethra - The tube-like section that conveys urine from the bladder to the outside.
Uterus (Womb) - A hollow muscular organ which receives the ovum (egg) through the fallopian tubes, and which retains it during development, and from which the fetus is expelled during labor.
Vagina - The lower part of the female reproductive tract.
Vaginitis - Irritation and inflammation of the vaginal walls. One type of vaginitis, yeast infection, is defined by the presence of candidiasis. See Encyclopedia
Varicose Vein - An abnormal swelling and tortuosity especially of the superficial veins of the legs.
Veins - The vessels carrying blood toward the heart. Veins (with the exception of the pulmonary vein) carry dark, red (unaerated) blood from other parts of the body to the heart.
Vernix - A layer of thick, white material that covers the baby’s skin.
Vessel - Canal, duct or tube that conveys the fluids of the body.
White Coat Hypertension - Consistently elevated blood pressure occurring only during doctor appointments.
Western Blot - A test which detects antibodies to the HIV virus. This test is thought to provide conclusive evidence for Human Immunodeficiency Virus when it is positive.